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Part II of select translations of 14th FYP (2021-2025) and Objectives through 2035
with a full chapter on Belt and Road
This is Part II of a three-part series of SELECT translations of the draft of China’s 14th Five-Year Plan and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035.
Basically, the document is too important to miss, and there is no English-language translation available so far. But it is also very long - 142 pages - and this personal newsletter is a one-man shop, meaning your Pekingnologist has no resources to provide a full translation plus analysis.
So, you are relying on the judgment of a Chinese journalist to select parts of the document and translate them into English, based on your trust in his decade-long training, experience, and judgment on what might be of most interest to you.
You can read Part I in the previous Pekingnology newsletter here, which covers Page 1 to Page 49. A more comprehensive foreword is also available there.
Before going to Page 49 and all the way through Page 102, please understand this is NEITHER official NOR authoritative, as this is a PERSONAL newsletter which does not represent the views of your Pekingnologist’s day-job employer Xinhua News Agency, let alone “China.” The parts that this newsletter omitted are NOT less important; the parts appearing here are NOT more important.
Also, your Pekingnologist has uploaded and shared the draft documents presented to the ongoing National People’s Congress session. And you can find it in the Twitter thread below.
All the draft documents are already OPEN to the public at the time of their uploading. This is NOT a leak. Your Pekingnologist believes:
1) they've already been made public and already making rounds on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Chinese social media, etc., so there is no hiding and this helps everyone save some time;
2) the original text in China's own words are the most accurate and faithful to what China means, in full without bias/filtering/selectiveness, for you to understand Beijing as it is;
3) Most importantly, goodwill aside, greater transparency and convenience at the end of the day helps China to “tell its story well” and decrease misunderstanding and miscalculation - everyone can now double-check/cross-check if anything is mistranslated, taken out of context, blown out of proportion, etc.
Since no one (at least by now) funds this newsletter that has taken a lot of time and energy from your Pekingnologist, he is NOW asking for your financial contribution to make it more sustainable.
You can buy him some coffee at Buy me a coffee or pay him via Paypal directly. All the money goes to his personal account, not the Ministry of Finance. Again, full disclosure: you are paying a natural person who Twitter calls “China state-affiliated media.”
Lastly, since most of you are apparently interested in the Belt and Road Initiative, the full Chapter 41 on BRI is at the end of this newsletter.
Establishing and improving a unified urban and rural construction land market, and coordinating the reform of rural land expropriation, collective construction land for commercial use entering the market, and the rural residential system. Reform the way land planning is managed, give provincial governments greater autonomy in land use, and explore the establishment of a nationwide mechanism for cross-regional trading of construction land and supplementary arable land targets. Establish a mechanism for the reasonable conversion of different industrial land types, and increase the supply of land for mixed industries. Improve a unified and standardized human resources market system, break down barriers to the movement of labor and talent between urban and rural areas, regions, and 单位 units/danwei of different ownership, and reduce unreasonable restrictions in the management of 人事档案 personnel records/files. Develop factors markets of technology and data. Improve the operation mechanism of the factors market and improve the trading rules and service system. Deepen the integration and sharing of public resource trading platforms.
坚持鼓励竞争、反对垄断，完善竞争政策框架，构建覆盖事前、 事中、事后全环节的竞争政策实施机制。统筹做好增量审查与存量清理，强化公平竞争审查制度的刚性约束，完善公平竞争审查细则， 持续清理废除妨碍全国统一市场和公平竞争的规定及做法。完善市场竞争状况评估制度，建立投诉举报和处理回应机制。加大反垄断和反不正当竞争执法司法力度，防止资本无序扩张。推进能源、铁路、电信、公用事业等行业竞争性环节市场化改革，放开竞争性业务准入，进一步引入市场竞争机制，加强对自然垄断业务的监管。
Reinforce the foundational position of competition policy
Continue to encourage competition and oppose monopoly, improve the competition policy framework, and build a competition policy implementation mechanism that covers all aspects of competition policy before, during, and after the event. Coordinate the review in the future with the review of existing (practice), strengthen the rigid constraints of the fair competition review system, improve the rules for fair competition review, and continue to clean up and abolish regulations and practices that hinder the unified market and fair competition across the country. Improve the system for assessing the state of competition in the market, and establish a mechanism for reporting and responding to complaints. Strengthen judicial efforts in anti-monopoly and anti-unfair competition enforcement to prevent the disorderly expansion of capital. Promote market-oriented reforms in competitive sectors such as energy, railways, telecommunications, and public utilities, liberalize access to competitive businesses, further introduce market competition mechanisms and strengthen the regulation of natural monopolies.
Improve social credit system
Establish and improve the system of laws, regulations, and standards on credit, develop a catalog of public credit information and a list of disciplinary measures for breach of trust/credit, and improve the credit repair(ment) mechanism for subjects(persons and entities) in breach of trust/credit. Promote the commitment/promise upon credit system. Strengthen the collection, sharing, disclosure, and application of credit information, and promote credit products and services for the benefit of the public and enterprises. Establish a mechanism for the sharing and integration of public credit information and financial information. Cultivate internationally competitive corporate credit information agencies and credit rating agencies, strengthen credit supervision and promote the healthy development of the credit service market. Strengthen the management of credit information security and protect the legitimate rights and interests of credit subjects. Establish and improve the system of accountability for governments in their breach of trust/credit.
The 信用承诺制度 commitment/promise upon credit system, as it is terribly translated here, appears to be that if you have a certain credit profile and you pledge/promise/commit to something based on that, you can avoid collateral or get some other convenience.
Appropriately strengthen the central government's powers in areas such as intellectual property protection, pensions and cross-regional ecological and environmental protection, and reduce and standardise the powers shared between the central and local authorities.
Optimize the structure of the tax system, improve the direct tax system and appropriately increase the proportion of direct taxes. Improve the personal income tax system, promote the expansion of the scope of comprehensive levy and optimize the tax rate structure. Focus on supporting the stabilization of the manufacturing industry and consolidating the supply chain of the industrial chain, and further optimize the VAT system. Adjusting and optimizing the scope and rates of consumption tax, moving collection into the later parts of the chain and steadily transferring it to the local level. Standardize and improve tax concessions. Promote real estate tax legislation, improve the local tax system and gradually expand local tax administration and management powers. Deepen the reform of the tax collection and administration system, build smart taxation and promote the modernization of tax collection and administration.
建设现代中央银行制度，完善货币供应调控机制。稳妥推进数字货币研发。健全市场化利率形成和传导机制，完善央行政策利率体系，更好发挥贷款市场报价利率基准作用。优化金融体系结构，深化国有商业银行改革，加快完善中小银行和农村信用社治理结构，规范发展非银行金融机构，增强金融普惠性。改革优化政策性金融，强化服务国家战略和规划能力。 深化保险公司改革，提高商业保险保障能力。健全金融机构公司治理，强化股东股权和关联交易监管。完善资本市场基础制度，健全多层次资本市场体系，大力发展机构投资者，提高直接融资特别是股权融资比重。全面实行股票发行注册制，建立常态化退市机制， 提高上市公司质量。深化新三板改革。完善市场化债券发行机制，稳步扩大债券市场规模，丰富债券品种，发行长期国债和基础设施长期债券。完善投资者保护制度和存款保险制度。完善现代金融监管体系，补齐监管制度短板，在审慎监管前提下有序推进金融创新， 健全风险全覆盖监管框架，提高金融监管透明度和法治化水平。稳 妥发展金融科技，加快金融机构数字化转型。强化监管科技运用和 金融创新风险评估，探索建立创新产品纠偏和暂停机制。
Build a modern central banking system and improve the money supply control mechanism. Steadily promote the development of digital currency. Improve the market-based interest rate formation and transmission mechanism, improve the central bank's policy interest rate system and give better play to the role of a benchmark for interest rates quoted in the lending market. Optimize the structure of the financial system, deepen the reform of state-owned commercial banks, accelerate the improvement of the governance structure of small and medium-sized banks and rural credit cooperatives, regulate the development of non-bank financial institutions, and enhance financial inclusion. Reform and optimize policy financing, and strengthen the ability to serve national strategies and planning. Deepen the reform of insurance companies and improve the protection capacity of commercial insurance. Improve the corporate governance of financial institutions and strengthen the regulation of shareholders, equity, and related party transactions. Improve the basic system of the capital market, improve the multi-level capital market system, vigorously develop institutional investors, and increase the proportion of direct financing, especially equity financing. Fully implement the registration (instead of administrative approval) system for stock issuance/IPOs, establish a regular delisting mechanism and improve the quality of listed companies. Deepen the reform of the National Equities Exchange and Quotations/New Third Board. Improve the market-based bond issuance mechanism, steadily expand the scale of the bond market, diversify bond varieties, and issue long-term government bonds and long-term infrastructure bonds. Improve the investor protection system and deposit insurance system. Improve the modern financial supervision system, fill the shortcomings of the regulatory system, promote financial innovation in an orderly manner under the premise of prudential supervision, strengthen the regulatory framework with full risk coverage, and improve the transparency of financial supervision and the rule of law. Steadily develop financial technology and accelerate the digital transformation of financial institutions. Strengthen the use of regulatory technology and risk assessment of financial innovation, and explore the establishment of a mechanism to correct and suspend innovative products.
Implement a nationwide unified negative list system for market access, remove hidden barriers to entry beyond the list, and further relax entry restrictions with a focus on the service sector. Streamline administrative licensing matters, reduce and consolidate qualification licenses, abolish unnecessary filing registrations and annual inspections, and standardize business-related inspections. Comprehensively implement the reform of "separating permits from the business license" and "reduction of permits after the business licenses" and carry out comprehensive reform of the approval system for engineering and construction projects. Reform the production licensing system, simplify the approval process for industrial products, and implement a management list of business-related licensing matters. Establish a convenient, efficient and orderly system for the withdrawal of market entities, simplify ordinary cancellation/deregistration procedures, and establish a sound system for the bankruptcy of enterprises and natural persons. Innovate overnment services and promote the facilitation of approval services. Deepen the building of (all things being done in) the "single window" for international trade. Improve the evaluation system for the business environment.
推进线上线下一体化监管。严格市场监管、质量监管、安全监管，加强 对食品药品、特种设备和网络交易、旅游、广告、中介、物业等的监管，强化要素市场交易监管，对新产业新业态实施包容审慎监管……深化行业协会、商会和中介机构改革。加强社会公众、 新闻媒体监督。
Promote the integration of online and offline supervision. Strictly regulate markets, quality and safety, strengthen the regulation of food and drug, special equipment and online transactions, tourism, advertising, intermediaries and property, strengthen the regulation of factors market transactions, and implement inclusive and prudent regulation of new industries and new business models…Deepen the reform of industry associations, chambers of commerce and intermediaries. Strengthen supervision by the public and the media.
夯实粮食生产能力基础，保障粮、棉、油、糖、肉、奶等重要 农产品供给安全。坚持最严格的耕地保护制度，强化耕地数量保护 和质量提升，严守 18 亿亩耕地红线，遏制耕地“非农化”、防止 “非粮化”，规范耕地占补平衡，严禁占优补劣、占水田补旱地。 以粮食生产功能区和重要农产品生产保护区为重点，建设国家粮食 安全产业带，实施高标准农田建设工程，建成 10.75 亿亩集中连片 高标准农田。实施黑土地保护工程，加强东北黑土地保护和地力恢 复。推进大中型灌区节水改造和精细化管理，建设节水灌溉骨干工 程，同步推进水价综合改革。加强大中型、智能化、复合型农业机 械研发应用，农作物耕种收综合机械化率提高到 75%。加强种质资 源保护利用和种子库建设，确保种源安全。加强农业良种技术攻关，有序推进生物育种产业化应用，培育具有国际竞争力的种业龙头企业。
We will strengthen the foundation of our food production capacity and ensure the security of supply of important agricultural products such as grain, cotton, oil, sugar, meat and milk. We will adhere to the strictest arable land protection system, strengthen the protection of arable land in terms of quantity and quality, strictly adhere to the red line of 1.8 billion mu of arable land, curb the "non-agriculturalization" of arable land and prevent the "non-foodization" of arable land, regulate the balance of arable land occupation and compensation, and strictly prohibit the occupating superior land and compensating inferior land, and occupating wet land and compensating dry land. Focusing on functional grain production zones and important agricultural production reserves, build a national grain security industrial belt, implement a project to build high-standard farmland, and build 1.075 billion mu of concentrated and contiguous high-standard farmland. Implement the Black Soil Protection Project, strengthen the protection and restoration of black soil in the northeast. Promote water-saving renovation and refined management of large and medium-sized irrigation areas, build water-saving irrigation backbone projects, and simultaneously promote comprehensive water price reform. Strengthen the research and development and application of large and medium-sized, intelligent and complex agricultural machinery, and increase the comprehensive mechanisation rate of crop cultivation, seeding and harvesting to 75%. Strengthen the protection and use of germplasm resources and the construction of seed banks to ensure the safety of seed sources. Strengthen the technological research and development of good agricultural seeds, promote the industrial application of biological breeding in an orderly manner, and cultivate leading enterprises in the seed industry with international competitiveness.
Promote the extension of municipal and public facilities to suburban villages and larger towns, improve rural infrastructure facilities such as water, electricity, roads, gas, postal communications, radio and television, and logistics, and upgrade the quality of construction in rural housing. Promote the unification of standards and systems for basic public services in urban and rural areas, increase the supply of education, healthcare, elderly care and cultural services in rural areas, promote the exchange and rotation of teachers and doctors within counties, and improve the quality of agricultural housing.
Deepen the pilot reform of the rural residential land system, speed up the issuance of titles/owership certificates to rural residential land that integrate housing and land, and explore forms of separation of ownership, eligibility and use of rural residential land. Actively explore the implementation of allowing rural collective for-business for-construction land to the market. Allow rural collectives to transform idle rural residential land and abandoned collective public welfare construction land into collective for-business for-construction land on the premise of farmers' voluntariness and in accordance with the law. Establish a mechanism to identify the public interest in land acquisition and narrow the scope of land acquisition. Deepen the reform of the rural collective property rights system, improve property rights, quantify business assets to (individual) members of collective economic organisations, and develop and expand new types of rural collective economies. Effectively reduce the burden on village-level organisations.
Can’t help but write some notes here: whether or how rural land can be utilized for business 经营性and construction 建设 purposes is a huge, hot-button, and tricky issue and of theoretical and practical significance. Quantify business assets to (individual) members of collective economic organizations, though not new, is also complex and significant.
The policy of intra-provincial trading of surplus quota for urban and rural construction land increase/decrease linkages will continue to be implemented in areas that have (recently) been lifted out of poverty, and the policy of cross-provincial trading will be adjusted and improved.
放开放宽除个别超大城市外的落户限制，试行以经常居住地登记户口制度。全面取消城区常住人口 300 万以下的城市落户限制， 确保外地与本地农业转移人口进城落户标准一视同仁。全面放宽城区常住人口 300 万至 500 万的 I 型大城市落户条件。完善城区常住人口 500 万以上的超大特大城市积分落户政策，精简积分项目，确保社会保险缴纳年限和居住年限分数占主要比例，鼓励取消年度落户名额限制。健全以居住证为载体、与居住年限等条件相挂钩的基本公共服务提供机制，鼓励地方政府提供更多基本公共服务和办事便利，提高居住证持有人城镇义务教育、住房保障等服务的实际享有水平。
Liberalise and relax restrictions on settlement of household registration/hukou in cities other than several mega-cities, and pilot implementing a system of registration of household registration/hukou based on place of permanent residence on a trial basis. Completely abolish restrictions on settlement of household registration/hukou in cities with a resident population of less than 3 million, and ensure equal treatment of domestically migrating and local rural migrants in terms of the criteria for settling in cities. Completely relax the conditions for settling in Type I large cities with a permanent population of 3 million to 5 million. Improve the point-based policy on household settlement in mega megacities with a resident population of 5 million or more, streamline the number of points awarded, ensure that the number of years of social security payment and the number of years of residence account for the majority of points, and encourage the abolition of the annual quota for household settlement. Improve the mechanism for the provision of basic public services through the residence permit, which is linked to the length of residence and other conditions, and encourage local governments to provide more basic public services and facilitation, and improve the actual level of access to services such as compulsory education and housing security in urban areas for residence permit holders.
Note: To put this in perspective, you should compare the language here with, say, the 13th Five Year Plan and see what’s the improvement. Generally speaking, it’s toward more liberalization and relaxation for sure and in fact many provincial capitals have relaxed their own policies in the past years. Not enough time now, otherwise could have written an entire newsletter on this paragraph.
With the development of urban clusters as the focus, we will accelerate the formation of a strategic urbanisation pattern of "two horizontals and three columns". The city clusters of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing and the middle reaches of Yangtze River will be optimised and upgraded; the city clusters of Shandong Peninsula; Guangdong, Fujian and Zhejiang Coast; Central Plains, Guanzhong Plain and Beibu Gulf will be developed and strengthened; and the city clusters of Harbin-Changchun, South Central Liaoning, Central Shanxi, Central Guizhou, Central Yunnan, Hohhot-Baotou-Erdos-Yulin, Lanzhou-Xining, Ningxia Along-Yellow-River, and North Slope of Tianshan will be nurtured and developed.
Building a modern metropolitan area
Relying on central cities with strong driving capacity, the level of synergistic development of the one-hour commuting circle will be improved, and a number of modern urban areas with a high degree of co-location will be cultivated and developed. Use inter-city railways and suburban railways as the backbone.
We will build a slow-moving network of bicycle paths and walking trails, promote green building materials, assembly-type construction and steel-framed housing, and build a low-carbon city. Protect and preserve the city's cultural heritage, and stop large-scale demolition and construction, so that the city can leave its memories and residents can remember their past.
Adhere to the positioning that “houses are for living, not for speculation,” and accelerate the establishment of a housing system with multiple main sources of supply, multiple channels of subsidized housing, and promote both rental and purchase, so that all people can live in a residence and there is a balance between jobs and housing. Adhere to local conditions and multiple measures, emphasize on the main responsibility of city governments, and stabilize land prices, housing prices and expectations. Establish a linkage mechanism for housing and land, strengthen regulation of real estate-related finance, enable housing-related taxation to play a regulatory role, support reasonable demand for self-occupying (buy and live in it) and curb investment and speculative demand. Accelerate the cultivation and development of the rental housing market, effectively revitalize the stock of housing resources, expand the supply of urban rental housing in a strong and orderly manner, improve the policy on long-term rental housing, and gradually make rental and purchase housing equally entitled in terms of access to public services. Accelerate the construction of rental regulations to protect the legitimate rights and interests of tenants and renters. Effectively increase the supply of subsidized housing and improve the basic system and support policies for housing security. Focusing on cities with high population inflows and high housing prices, expand the supply of subsidized rental housing, and focus on solving the housing problems of disadvantaged groups and new citizens. Set aside a separate land plan for rental housing, explore the use of collective construction land and idle land owned by enterprises and institutions to build rental housing, and support the conversion of non-residential housing into subsidized rental housing.
NOTE: the all-important real estate sector…
Improve the mechanism for distributing revenue from land concessions and increase fiscal and financial support. Develop shared ownership housing in accordance with local conditions. Handle the relationship between basic and non-basic in subsidized housing, improve the way subsidized housing is provided, and improve policies on the target population, entry thresholds and exit management.
Focusing on Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Greater Bay Area of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, we will enhance our ability to curate innovation and allocate global resources, and accelerate the creation of a first echelon to lead high-quality development.
NOTE: The three regions are envisioned to be leading innovation, globalization, etc.
Enhancing the development capacity of border areas, strengthening demographic and economic support, and promoting national unity and stability along the border.
NOTE: Well, sounds like more devotion of human and economic resources.
紧抓疏解北京非首都功能“牛鼻子”，构建功能疏解政策体系，实施一批标志性疏解项目。高标准高质量建设雄安新区，加快启动区和起步区建设，推动管理体制创新。高质量建设北京城市副中心， 促进与河北省三河、香河、大厂三县市一体化发展。推动天津滨海新区高质量发展，支持张家口首都水源涵养功能区和生态环境支撑 区建设。提高北京科技创新中心基础研究和原始创新能力，推动京津冀产业链与创新链深度融合。基本建成轨道上的京津冀，提高机场群港口群协同水平。深化大气污染联防联控联治，强化华北地下水超采及地面沉降综合治理。
Keep on relieving Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as the capital. Build a policy system for the decommissioning of functions and implement a number of landmark decommissioning projects. Build the Xiong'an New Area to a high standard and quality, speed up the construction of the start-up area and the initial area, and promote innovation in the management system. Build the Beijing Sub-centre in high quality, and promote the integrated development of the city with Sanhe, Xianghe and Dazhuang in Hebei Province. Promote the high-quality development of Tianjin Binhai New Area and support the construction of Zhangjiakou Capital Water Containment Function Area and Ecological Environment Support Area. Improve the basic research and original innovation capacity of the Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Centre and promote the in-depth integration of the industrial and innovation chains in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. The basic construction of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei on the railway will be completed, and the level of synergy between airport clusters and port clusters will be improved. Deepen the joint prevention and control of air pollution and strengthen the comprehensive management of groundwater over-exploitation and subsidence in North China.
Expand the scope of mutual recognition of professional qualifications between the Mainland and Hong Kong + Macao, and thoroughly promoting the convergence of rules and dovetailing mechanisms in key areas. Facilitate young people from Hong Kong and Macao to study, work and start businesses in cities in the Greater Bay Area.
NOTE: It speaks for itself.
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Promote the construction of a twin-city economic circle in the Chengdu-Chongqing region, and build an important economic centre with national influence, a centre of scientific and technological innovation, a new high ground for reform and opening up, and a pleasant place to live with high quality of life.
NOTE: Chengdu-Chongqing is THE unique polar in Western China.
支持新疆建设国家“三基地一通道”，支持西藏打造面向南亚开放的重要通道。 促进 400 毫米降水线西侧区域保护发展。
Support Xinjiang in building national "three bases and one channel", and support Tibet in building an important channel for opening up to South Asia. Promote the protection and development of the area west of the 400 mm precipitation line.
“三基地一通道” “three bases and one channel”:
Large oil and gas production, processing, and reserve base;
Large coal, coal power, and coal chemical base;
Large wind power base;
Major land-based corridor for energy resources.
Rise of Central China
Accelerate the construction of Wuhan and Changzhutan metropolitan areas to create an important national growth pole.
建设塔什库尔干、隆子、绥芬河等机场，迁建延吉机场，建设 20 个左右边 境通用机场。
04 Border airports
Construct airports in Tashkurgan, Longzi, and Suifenhe, relocation and construction of Yanji airport, and construction of about 20 general-purpose airports on the border.
建设里孜、黑河、同江、黑瞎子岛口岸，改造提升吉隆、樟木、磨憨、霍 尔果斯、阿拉山口、满洲里、二连浩特、瑞丽、友谊关、红其拉甫、甘其 毛都、策克、吐尔尕特、伊尔克什坦口岸。
05 Border crossings
Construct Rizi, Heihe, Tongjiang and Heixiangzi Island crossings; and upgrade Jilong, Zhangmu, Mochan, Horgos, Alashankou, Manzhouli, Erlianhot, Ruili, Youguang, Hongqilaf, Ganqimadu, Cek, Turgat and Ilkhestan crossings.
Improve the mechanism for financial transfers to support less developed regions, gradually equalise basic public services, and guide the flow of talent to the west and harsh and remote areas.
NOTE: To guide the flow of the talent is undoubtedly difficult, but something Beijing finds necessary for balance and national good.
Focus on forging a strong sense of community among the Chinese people, increase support for the development of ethnic areas, carry out comprehensive, in-depth and sustained education and promotion of ethnic unity and progress, and promote interaction, communication, and exchange among all ethnic groups.
Optimize the layout of offshore green farming, build marine pastures and develop sustainable pelagic fisheries.
Deepen participation in global ocean governance
Actively develop blue partnerships, participate deeply in the formulation and implementation of international maritime governance mechanisms and relevant rules, promote the building of a just and reasonable international maritime order, and promote the building of a maritime community of destiny. Deepen practical cooperation with coastal countries in such areas as marine environmental monitoring and protection, scientific research, and maritime search and rescue, and strengthen the investigation and evaluation of strategic resources and biodiversity in the deep sea. Participate in practical cooperation in the Arctic and build the "Silk Road on Ice". Improve the ability to participate in the protection and use of the Antarctic. Strengthen situation study, risk prevention, and legal theory struggle, strengthen maritime justice, and resolutely safeguard national maritime rights and interests. Promote in an orderly manner the legislation of the basic maritime law.
持续开展中国特色社会主义和中国梦宣传教育，加强党史、新中国史、改革开放史、社会主义发展史教育，加强爱国主义、集体主义、 社会主义教育，加强革命文化研究阐释和宣传教育，弘扬党和人民 在各个历史时期奋斗中形成的伟大精神。
Continue to promote and educate on socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream, strengthen education on the history of the Party, New China, reform and opening up and the development of socialism, strengthen education on patriotism, collectivism, and socialism, strengthen research, interpretation, and publicity on revolutionary culture, and promote the great spirit of the Party and the people formed during their struggles in various periods of history.
加强对习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的整体性系统性研究、出版传播、宣传阐释，推进马克思主义中国化、时代化、大 众化。深入实施马克思主义理论研究和建设工程，推进习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想研究中心(院)、中国特色社会主义理论体系研究中心等建设，建好用好“学习强国”等学习平台。构建中国特色哲学社会科学学科体系、学术体系和话语体系，深入实施哲 学社会科学创新工程，加强中国特色新型智库建设。
Strengthen the systematic research, publication, dissemination, publicity and interpretation of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and promote the sinicization, modernization and popularization of Marxism. Implement the Marxist theory research and construction project, promote the construction of research centres (institutes) on Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and research centres on socialist theoretical systems with Chinese characteristics, and build and use learning platforms such as the 学习强国 Xuexi Qiangguo app. Build a discipline system, academic system and discourse system for philosophy and social science with Chinese characteristics, implement the innovation project for philosophy and social science, and strengthen the construction of new-type think tanks with Chinese characteristics.
Implement the 中华文明探源 Chinese Civilization Exploration Project and 考古中国 Archaeological China Project, conduct a census of Chinese cultural resources, strengthen the protection and research of cultural relics and ancient books, promote the protection of revolutionary cultural relics and red sites, and improve the mechanism for recovering and returning lost cultural relics (from overseas). Build national cultural parks such as the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, the Long March, and the Yellow River, and strengthen the protection of world cultural heritage, cultural heritage protection units, archaeological site parks, and famous historical and cultural cities, towns, and villages.
Make quality improvement the lifeblood of literary and artistic works, and improve the ability to create original works of literature and art. Implement a project to improve the quality of literary and artistic works, improve the mechanism for planning and organizing the creation of major realistic, revolutionary and historical themes, strengthen the creation of rural and juvenile themes, and continuously launch literary and artistic works that reflect the new climate of the times and celebrate the new creations of the people. It will also establish a sound incentive mechanism and evaluation system for the creation and production, dissemination and guidance, and promotion of cultural products, and promote the formation of a healthy and clear literary and artistic ecology.
Strengthen cultural exchanges and multi-level civilizational dialogue with foreign countries, innovate and promote international communication, use online and offline (channels) to tell the Chinese story well, spread the Chinese voice, and promote people-to-people contact. Launch activities such as "Experience China", "Journey Around China" and "A&V China", and organize Chinese cultural and tourism years. Build a Chinese language communication platform, and construct a global Chinese language and culture dissemination system and an international Chinese language education standard system.
Publication and dissemination of socialist theory with Chinese characteristics
Edit and publish a series of theoretical reading materials such as the Governance of China, Q &A on Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and a series of sub-disciplinary study programmes, and edit and publish classic teaching materials on the history of the Party, the history of New China, the history of reform and opening up, and the history of socialist development, and strengthens overseas translation, publication and promotion.
加强城市大气质量达标管理，推进细颗粒物(PM2.5)和臭氧 (O3)协同控制，地级及以上城市 PM2.5 浓度下降 10%，有效遏制 O3 浓度增长趋势，基本消除重污天气。持续改善京津冀及周边地 区、汾渭平原、长三角地区空气质量，因地制宜推动北方地区清洁取暖、工业窑炉治理、非电行业超低排放改造，加快挥发性有机物 排放综合整治，氮氧化物和挥发性有机物排放总量分别下降 10%以上。
Strengthen the management of urban air quality standards, promote the coordinated control of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), reduce PM2.5 concentrations by 10% in cities at prefecture level and above, effectively curb the trend of increasing O3 concentrations, and basically eliminate heavily polluted weather. Continue to improve air quality in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas, the Fenwei Plain and the Yangtze River Delta region, promote clean heating in northern areas, industrial kiln treatment and ultra-low emission transformation in industries more than (just) power generation according to local conditions, and accelerate the comprehensive rectification of volatile organic compounds emissions, with total emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds falling by more than 10% respectively.
落实 2030 年应对气候变化国家自主贡献目标，制定2030年前碳排放达峰行动方案。完善能源消费总量和强度双控制度，重点控制化石能源消费。实施以碳强度控制为主、碳排放总量控制为辅的 制度，支持有条件的地方率先达到碳排放峰值。推动能源清洁低碳 安全高效利用，深入推进工业、建筑、交通等领域低碳转型。加大 甲烷、氢氟碳化物、全氟化碳等其他温室气体控制力度。锚定努力争取 2060 年前实现碳中和，采取更加有力的政策和措施。加强全球气候变暖对我国承受力脆弱地区影响的观测和评估，提升城乡建设、农业生产、基础设施适应气候变化能力。坚持公平、共同但有区别的责任及各自能力原则，建设性参与和引领应对气候变化国际合作，推动落实联合国气候变化框架公约及其巴黎协定，积极开展气候变化南南合作。
Actively addressing climate change
Implement the 2030 target for voluntary national contribution to climate change, and develop an action plan to achieve peak carbon emissions by 2030. Improve the dual control system for total energy consumption and intensity, with emphasis on controlling fossil energy consumption. Implement a system that focuses on carbon intensity control, supplemented by total carbon emission control, and support places with the conditions to take the lead in reaching peak carbon emissions. Promote the clean, low-carbon, safe, and efficient use of energy, and further promote low-carbon transformation in industry, construction, and transport. Increase efforts to control other greenhouse gases such as methane, HFCs, and PFCs. Strive to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 and adopt stronger policies and measures. Strengthen the observation and assessment of the impact of global warming on vulnerable areas in China, and enhance the capacity of urban and rural construction, agricultural production, and infrastructure to adapt to climate change. Adhering to the principles of equity, common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, constructively participate in and lead international cooperation in addressing climate change, promote the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement, and actively engage in South-South cooperation on climate change.
强化农业节水增效、工业节水减 排和城镇节水降损，鼓励再生水利用，单位 GDP 用水量下降 16% 左右。
To strengthen water conservation and efficiency in agriculture, water conservation and reduction of emissions in industry and water conservation and loss reduction in cities and towns, encourage the use of recycled water and reduce water consumption per unit of GDP by around 16%.
新增建设用地规模控制在 2950 万亩以内， 推动单位 GDP 建设用地使用面积稳步下降。
The scale of new construction land will be controlled at 29.5 million mu, and the area of land used for construction per unit of GDP will be steadily reduced.
大气污染物减排 实施 8.5亿吨水泥熟料、4.6 亿吨焦化产能和 4000 台左右有色行业炉窑清洁 生产改造，完成 5.3 亿吨钢铁产能超低排放改造
新增和改造污水收集管网 8 万公里，新增污水处理能力 2000 万立方米/日。
Emission reduction of atmospheric pollutants Implementing clean production renovation of 850 million tonnes of cement clinker, 460 million tonnes of coking capacity and around 4,000 non-ferrous kilns, and complete ultra-low emission renovation of 530 million tonnes of iron and steel capacity.
Add and renovate 80,000 kilometres of sewage collection networks and add 20 million cubic metres/day of sewage treatment capacity.
Implement major demonstration projects for the industrialization of energy-saving and low-carbon technologies, and carry out demonstrations of major projects such as near-zero energy buildings, near-zero carbon emissions, and carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS).
NOTE: They sound like big business opportunities to your Pekingnologist.
构建与国际通行规则相衔接的制度体系和监管模式。健全外商 投资准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度，进一步缩减外资准入负面清单，落实准入后国民待遇，促进内外资企业公平竞争。建立健 全跨境服务贸易负面清单管理制度，健全技术贸易促进体系。稳妥推进银行、证券、保险、基金、期货等金融领域开放，深化境内外 资本市场互联互通，健全合格境外投资者制度。稳慎推进人民币国际化，坚持市场驱动和企业自主选择，营造以人民币自由使用为基础的新型互利合作关系。完善出入境、海关、外汇、税收等环节管理服务。
Accelerate institutional opening-up
Build a system and regulatory model that is in line with internationally accepted rules. The system of national treatment plus negative list management for foreign investment will be improved, the negative list for foreign investment access will be further reduced, post-entry national treatment will be implemented, and fair competition between domestic and foreign enterprises will be promoted. Establish a sound management system for cross-border trade in services with a negative list, and improve the system for promoting trade in technology. Steadily promote the opening up of financial sectors such as banking, securities, insurance, funds and futures, deepen the interconnection of domestic and foreign capital markets, and improve the system for qualified foreign investors. 稳慎 Prudently and cautiously promote the internationalisation of the RMB (yuan), adhere to the market-driven approach and the independent choice of enterprises, and create a new type of mutually beneficial cooperation based on the free use of the RMB. Improve management services in the areas of immigration, customs, foreign exchange and taxation.
稳步推进海南自由贸易港建设，以货物贸易“零关税”、服务贸易“既准入又准营”为方向推进贸易自由化便利化，大幅放宽市场准入，全面推行“极简审批”投资制度，开 展跨境证券投融资改革试点和数据跨境传输安全管理试点，实施更 加开放的人才、出入境、运输等政策，制定出台海南自由贸易港法， 初步建立中国特色自由贸易港政策和制度体系。
Steadily promote the construction of a free trade port in Hainan, promote trade liberalisation and facilitation in the direction of "zero tariff" for trade in goods and "both access and permission" for trade in services, substantially liberalise market access, comprehensively implement a "minimalist approval" investment system, launch a pilot reform of cross-border securities investment and financing and a pilot project on the secure management of cross-border data transmission, implement a more open policy on talent, immigration and transport, and formulate and issue a law on Hainan free trade port. Initially establish a policy and institutional system for a free trade port with Chinese characteristics.
Accelerate the pace of opening up the central and western regions and the northeastern region, support the undertaking of domestic and foreign industrial transfers, foster important global processing and manufacturing bases and new growth poles, and study the establishment of additional national category 1 ports in inland areas.
Support Guangxi in building a highland of openness and cooperation towards ASEAN, and Yunnan in building a regional centre open to South-East Asia and the Indian Ocean Rim.
Improve security guarantee system for opening up
Construct a regulatory and risk prevention and control system that matches the higher level of opening up. Improve the early warning system for industrial damage, and enrich the policy tools such as trade adjustment assistance and trade remedies to properly deal with economic and trade frictions. Strengthen the systems of national security review of foreign investment, anti-monopoly review, national technology safety list management and list of unreliable entities. Establish a global supply chain risk warning system for important resources and products, and strengthen cooperation in safeguarding international supply chains. Strengthen balance of payments monitoring and maintain a basic balance of payments and stable foreign exchange reserves. Strengthen the monitoring of foreign assets and liabilities, and establish and improve the system for the supervision of foreign debts of full calibre. Improve the supervision system for overseas investments based on classification and gradings. Build a system for the protection of overseas interests and risk warning and prevention. Optimise and enhance the infrastructure protection capacity of diplomatic institutions abroad, improve the institutional mechanism for consular protection, and safeguard the safety and legitimate rights and interests of Chinese citizens and institutions abroad.
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Since most of you are apparently interested in the Belt and Road Initiative, below is the full Chapter 41 on BRI.
推动陆海天网四位一体联通，以“六廊六路多国多港”为基本 框架，构建以新亚欧大陆桥等经济走廊为引领，以中欧班列、陆海 新通道等大通道和信息高速路为骨架，以铁路、港口、管网等为依 托的互联互通网络，打造国际陆海贸易新通道。聚焦关键通道和关 键城市，有序推动重大合作项目建设，将高质量、可持续、抗风险、 价格合理、包容可及目标融入项目建设全过程。提高中欧班列开行 质量，推动国际陆运贸易规则制定。扩大“丝路海运”品牌影响。 推进福建、新疆建设“一带一路”核心区。推进“一带一路”空间 信息走廊建设。建设“空中丝绸之路”。
推动与共建“一带一路”国家贸易投资合作优化升级，积极发 展丝路电商。深化国际产能合作，拓展第三方市场合作，构筑互利 共赢的产业链供应链合作体系，扩大双向贸易和投资。坚持以企业 为主体、市场为导向，遵循国际惯例和债务可持续原则，健全多元 化投融资体系。创新融资合作框架，发挥共建“一带一路”专项贷 款、丝路基金等作用。建立健全“一带一路”金融合作网络，推动 金融基础设施互联互通，支持多边和各国金融机构共同参与投融资。完善“一带一路”风险防控和安全保障体系，强化法律服务保障，有效防范化解各类风险。
深化公共卫生、数字经济、绿色发展、科技教育、文化艺术等领域人文合作，加强议会、政党、民间组织往来，密切妇女、青年、 残疾人等群体交流，形成多元互动的人文交流格局。推进实施共建 “一带一路”科技创新行动计划，建设数字丝绸之路、创新丝绸之路。加强应对气候变化、海洋合作、野生动物保护、荒漠化防治等 交流合作，推动建设绿色丝绸之路。积极与共建“一带一路”国家开展医疗卫生和传染病防控合作，建设健康丝绸之路。
Chapter 41 Promote the high-quality joint development of Belt and Road
Section I Strengthen Development Strategies and Policy Alignment
Promote the docking of strategies, plans, and mechanisms, and strengthen the linkage of policies, rules, and standards. Promote the signing of investment protection agreements and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation with more countries, strengthen cooperation in customs, taxation and supervision, and promote the implementation of a higher level of customs clearance integration. Strengthen cooperation in the areas of financing, trade, energy, digital information, agriculture, and other areas. Promote effective dovetailing and synergy between the BRI and regional and international development agendas.
Innovate financing cooperation frameworks; special loans for the construction of the Belt and Road and the Silk Road Fund will be brought into play. Establish and improve the BRI financial cooperation network, promote the interconnection of financial infrastructure, and support the joint participation of multilateral and national financial institutions in investment and financing.
Section II Promote Infrastructure Interconnection
Promote the four-in-one connectivity of land, sea and sky networks, take "six corridors, six roads, many countries and many ports" as the basic framework, build an interconnection network led by economic corridors such as the New Asia-Europe Continental Bridge, with major corridors such as the China-Europe freight trains, the new land and sea corridors and information highways as the backbone, and railroads, ports and pipeline networks as the backbone, and create a new international land and sea trade corridor. The new international land and sea trade corridor will be built with the support of railways, ports and pipeline networks. Focus on key corridors and key cities, promote the construction of major cooperation projects in an orderly manner, and integrate the goals of high quality, sustainability, risk resistance, reasonable price and inclusiveness into the whole process of project construction. Improve the quality of China-Europe freight trains and promote the development of international land transport trade rules. Expand the brand influence of "Silk Road Shipping". Promote Fujian and Xinjiang to build core areas of the Belt and Road. Promote the construction of Belt and Road spatial information corridor. Build the "Air Silk Road".
Section III Deepen pragmatic cooperation in trade and investment
Promote the optimization and upgrading of trade and investment cooperation with the Belt and Road countries, and actively develop the Silk Road e-commerce. Deepen international production capacity cooperation, develop third-party market cooperation, build a mutually beneficial and win-win supply chain cooperation system, and expand two-way trade and investment. Adhere to enterprise-oriented and market-oriented, follow international practices and the principle of debt sustainability, and improve the diversified investment and financing system. Innovate financing cooperation framework, enable the special loans for the construction of Belt and Road , the Silk Road Fund, and others to play their roles. Establish and improve the Belt and Road financial cooperation network, promote the interconnection of financial infrastructure, and support the joint participation of multilateral and national financial institutions in investment and financing. Improve the Belt and Road risk prevention and control and security system, strengthen the safeguards of legal services , and effectively prevent and resolve various risks.
Section IV Build bridges for mutual learning and appreciation of civilizations
Deepen humanities cooperation in the fields of public health, digital economy, green development, science and technology, education, culture, and the arts, strengthen exchanges between parliaments, political parties, and non-governmental organizations, and enhance exchanges among women, youth, persons with disabilities and other groups, so as to form a multifaceted and interactive pattern of humanities exchanges. Promote the implementation of the BRI action plan on science and technology innovation, and build the Digital Silk Road and the Silk Road of Innovation. Strengthen exchanges and cooperation in addressing climate change, marine cooperation, wildlife protection, and desertification prevention and control, and promote the construction of the Green Silk Road. Actively cooperate with countries which joined the BRI in health care and disease prevention and control, and build the Silk Road of Health.
Stopping at the top of Page 102 of the draft of China’s 14th Five-Year Plan and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035.
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